3. You and Web2.0

web 2 intro


web1 vs web2
  • neighborhood layout vs block parties
  • infrastructure vs information
  • highway vs rush hour (and billboards and bus rides...)
  • network interfaces vs web interfaces

what about web 1??

  • Web1.0 worked like a giant encyclopedia
  • it can be considered a content delivery network (CDN)
    • content was simply delivered to your computer
    • generally you couldn't update the information served to you.
  • Web2.0 extended how the web was used by allowing users to "interact" more with the web
    • think of the book "Tarzan" vs the book "Choose your own adventure: Tarzan" (or "MadLibs: Tarzan")

The web is the information users access on the internet

  • it's the mail that is delivered to houses in your neighborhood

Web interfaces = applications and browsers

  • application interfaces interpret each other's instructions
    • Application Programming Interface (API)
      • APIs are each application's interpreter when other applications talk to them

The Web is servers and clients

  • servers and clients are computers
  • servers are the back end of the web
  • clients are the front end of the web
  • clients make requests to servers
  • servers listen and respond to requests from clients
  • servers talk to other servers on behalf of clients

How do servers "listen"?

Servers use ports to listen for events. Ports are like your mailbox. Your mailbox isn't your address, but it's where you send and receive mail. Ports are like a server's mailbox.

web 2 intro
  • your keyboard sends requests to the input server running on your computer that listens and responds to every key you press
  • your dog's smart collar is a server
  • servers just need a port so they can listen and respond to requests
  • web servers are servers that use web protocols like "http"

why are appliances becoming "smart" now?

  • more and more consumer goods now have tiny servers in them
for example:
  • alexa listens to me say "turn off lights"
    • her microphone receives my sound vibrations
      • it transduces my command to bytecode her api can understand
  • alexa converts the bytecode of my request to a signal that my smart bulb's API can hear.
    • my smart bulb's server has been listening for any requests to its API all day
  • my smart bulb receives the request and routes it to a function that executes the turning off of the bulb
  • this networking of objects with tiny servers in our homes is called the Internet of Things (IoT)

The web is organized and designed for user experience (U/X)

web 1 to web2 evolution
  • WordPress used to be the convention for web design
    • each page was a pre-designed template
      • limited control of layout
      • all pages looked / behaved the same
web 2 modularity
  • it allows flexibility in deployment, arrangement, and customization
    • a web app is composed of different scripts, libraries, smaller apps, etc., but can be deployed as a single entity, and therefore follows this idea of modularity
  • granular control
  • web pages grow / shrink responsively to screen size and device type

Data and the web

Data from Star Trek

Data is broken down and passes back and forth between your computer and multiple servers

web2 data flow

web data as postcards

if I want to send you a postcard, but I have so much to tell you that I have to write it out across 10 postcards, I might number each postcard in case they don't all get delivered at the same time, so you can reconstruct them in the right order once they all arrive

  • data in motion 🏃

    • data broken into smaller web packets that travel between client and server(s)
      • if a packet says it's number 4 in a list of packets, and your computer hasn't seen number 3 yet then your data waits until the other packets arrive before it gets reassembled
  • data at rest 😴

    • local storage
      • data stored in your browser with no expiration
    • session storage
      • data cached in your browser until you close the browser window

time and the web 🕐

web2 time diagrams
  • "trusting" what a server somewhere in the world tells us is the correct time
  • UCT solution - time based on the Sun and Earth's rotation
    • needs mass adoption
    • impractical that noon UCT would mean noon all around the world
  • faster connections make syncing time more and more difficult
    • bad things can and do happen on the web in a blink of an eye

Your Relationship with the Web

people with smart phones

Identity 🤳

google mapscomic about the modern webgoogle maps
  • you are your activity on the web

    • your browser history
    • requests coming from your IP address
    • your activity in and accross other web apps (shared data)
  • your email is your main source of identity

    • it relies on a web mail protocol to function
    • you can use it to log into numerous web apps
    • password plus information from another device (2FA) required for identity verification
  • access to your identity is at the mercy of internet service providers and app owners

    • Twitter can lock you out of your account
    • your ISP can shut your internet access at any point
      • new internet plan? no problem - except now your router is no longer compatable, and you'll need to upgrade that before you service is restored 🤷

Ownership 🔑

Facebook owns your data

you don't own your data

  • your data (activity history) is being sold constantly
    • you don't make a dime from it
  • cloud admins can delete any data you store on it
  • your accounts can be taken offline with just a few strokes
  • Instagram can use any pics you posted any way they want
  • it only takes a handful of people to completely block your access to any digital assets you "own"

Structure of the web 🏛️

Bezos controls web2
  • The modern web is distributed in a centralized way

    • distributed networks managed by handful of tech companies
    • very few points of failure can bring entire regions offline
  • The modern web is very centralized

    • 4 big box stores to shop at
    • monopolies mean that fewer and fewer people hold the keys to the kingdom


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Last Updated: 5/9/2022, 3:20:19 PM